There are numerous types of maps, but, basically, two are emphasized: topographical and thematic.
Provide information about the physical elements or landscape, representing mountains, rivers, lakes etc. The scale that is implemented is very large, because very small Earth surfaces are reflected (farms, villages, forests, towns, etc.) On these maps the visible aspects of the land can be clearly seen, such as paths, elevations, depressions, etc., that are captured with detail.
These maps are very different, classified by the function of the issue that they represent. For example, political maps are very common, which are those maps simbolizing states, their capitals, important cities and borders. Other maps represent physical characteristics (coasts, rivers, elevations, etc.) but without describing the real slopes in detail. There are also thematic maps representing climate, demographics, economics, also vulcanism, geological maps, etc. as long as they express a certain issue of specific topic.